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2012年2月
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 本期要目

fficacy of Multimodal Intervention for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)—An Indian Study

 

Author(s)

Thudalikunnil Gopalan Rejani, Anna Oommen, Shoba Srinath, Malavika Kapur

KEYWORDS

Multimodal Intervention; ADHD; Attention Enhancement Training; Parent Training

ABSTRACT

Background: To find the efficacy of multimodal intervention on attention deficit and hyperactivity, behavioral problems in home and school situations and on academic achievement of children with ADHD and the impact of family stress and coping on the outcome of multi-modal intervention. Method: A sample (N = 40) of children aged 5 - 10 years registered in the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Unit (CAMHU) with a diagnosis of ADHD (on the ICD-10) with or without comorbidity were randomly allocated to one of two groups: Group I (medical management with parent counseling, N = 20) or Group II (multimodal intervention (routine medical management, parent training and attention enhancement training), N = 20). Assessments (pre-assessment, re-assessment at one month and post assessment after 10 weeks) were carried out by investigator, parent, teacher and blind rater. Results: Significant improvement was noticed for both groups but multimodal intervention was superior to routine medical management and parent counselling in reducing ADHD symptoms, behavioural problems at home and school, and in improving academic performance. Effect size estimates and the rates of clinically significant change also supported this finding. Parental stress did not predict the outcome of intervention. Conclusions: Multimodal intervention was found to be promising in the treatment of ADHD.

 


 

Attachment Styles are Related to ERPs Elicited to Angry Faces in an Oddball Paradigm

 

Author(s)

Ruth E. Mark, Fienke I. M. Geurdes, Marrie H. J. Bekker

KEYWORDS

Event-Related Potentials; Attachment Styles or Dimensions; Autonomy; Anxiety; Attentional Bias Theory

 

ABSTRACT

Attachment theory suggests that anxious attachment is associated with hypervigilance to threatening social stimuli, and avoidant attachment with avoidance or suppression of processing such stimuli. Twenty-five students viewed angry, fearful and neutral female faces in four visual oddball tasks, and completed the Attachment Style Questionnaire, the Autonomy-Connectedness Scale, and Anxiety and Depression subscales of the Symptom Checklist-90. When the oddballs were angry faces in a background of neutral frequents, we found higher levels of autonomy and secure attachment to be related to larger N100 and smaller P300 amplitudes; higher levels of anxious attachment were, on the contrary, associated with smaller N100 and larger P300 amplitudes. Variation in attachment is related to approaching, or withdrawing from threatening stimuli, and ERP-techniques add to our understanding of how the attachment system actually works.

 


 

Neural Activation by Milnacipran and Memory Extinction

 

Author(s)

Hisahito Ishida, Masaaki Iwata, Yukihiko Shirayama, Katsumasa Muneoka

KEYWORDS

Milnacipran; Passive Avoidance Task; Prefrontal Cortex; Nucleus Accumbens; Hippocampus; Septum

 

ABSTRACT

Background: Among neurotransmitter influencing memory formation, the noradrenergic system has been recognized as an important system. Memory formation involves various regions including the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala and septum. Method: We investigated the effects of milnacipran on passive avoidance task and evaluated Fos counting in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, septum, amygdala and nucleus accumbens. Results: The milnacipran-treated rats (20 mg/kg, 4 days) showed a significant decrease in the number of Fos-immunoreactive cells in the infralimbic portion of prefrontal cortex, the shell portion of nucleus accumbens and the CA1 region of hippocampus, but a significant increase in the Fos counts in the lateral septum with no changes in the Fos counts in the striatum and amygdala. The milnacipran-treated rats showed amelioration in memory extinction (although not statistically significant), but not in memory acquisition and consolidation in the passive avoidance test. Conclusion: The differential activation of the brain regions might be possible sites for ameliorating memory extinction as well as antidepressant effects.


 

Adolescent Exposure of JWH-018 “Spice” Produces Subtle Effects on Learning and Memory Performance in Adulthood

Author(s)

David M. Compton, Megan Seeds, Grant Pottash, Brian Gradwohl, Chris Welton, Ross Davids

KEYWORDS

1-Pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole; JWH-018; K2; Spice; Spatial Learning; Morris Water Maze; Development; Memory

ABSTRACT

The active components associated with the bio-designer drugs known variously as “Spice” or “K2” have rapidly gained in popularity among recreational users, forcing the United States Drug Enforcement Administration to classify these compounds as Schedule I drugs in the Spring of 2011. However, although there is some information about many of the synthetic cannabinoids used in Spice products, little is known about the consequences of the main constituent, (1-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole; JWH-018), on neuropsychological development or behavior. In the present experiment, adolescent rats were given repeated injections of either saline or 100 μg/kg of JWH-018. Once the animals were 75 days of age, they were trained using tasks with spatial components of various levels of difficulty and a spatial learning set task. On early trials with water maze tasks of varying difficulty, the JWH-018 treated rats were impaired relative to controls. However, by the end of each phase of testing, drug and control animals were comparable, although on probe trials the drug-treated animals spent significantly less time in the target quadrant. In addition, the performance of the drug-treated rats was inferior to that of the control animals on a learning set task, suggesting some difficulty in adapting their responses to changing task demands. The results suggest that chronic exposure to this potent cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist during adolescence is capable of producing a variety of subtle changes affecting spatial learning and memory performance in adulthood, well after the drug exposure period.


 

Dissociation between Performances in Water Maze and Spontaneous Alternation in BALB/C versus A/J Mice

Author(s)

Julien Celestine, Arnaud Tanti, Arnaud Aubert

KEYWORDS

Morris Water Maze; Spontaneous Alternation; Behavior; BALB/c; A/J; Learning

ABSTRACT

Learning processes are extensively studied in behavioral neuroscience. As experimental models, Morris Water Maze (MWM) and Spontaneous Alternation (SA) represent two of the most frequently used laboratory tests to respectively address spatial vs non-spatial tasks. Several factors have been shown to impact on those learning, including strain, gender, apparatus, conditioning, vision, lighting conditions and stress level. In order to focus on the later, we compared the acquisition of two learning tasks (MWM and SA) in BALB/c and A/J mice, which are known as fearful and stress-sensitive strains. Here, we report that BALB/c mice exhibited higher performances than A/J mice in the MWM (i.e. spatial reference memory task), whereas A/J mice performed better in the SA (i.e. spatial working memory task). These results indicate dissociated processes in the acquisition of spatial vs non-spatial tasks, and emphasize a varying influence of emotional reactivity on different forms of cognition.

 

CONTENTS IN BRIEF

Original Articles

Variations of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 in Cervical and Skin Cancers in Sichuan, China*……………

………………………………………………………………………… XI Mingrong, ZHANG Jian*(1)

IGFBP7, a Novel Immunohistochemical Marker in Differentiating Dermatofibroma from

Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans*……………………… YU Ying, YAN Xiao-feng, LI Juan, et al.(9)

Effect of fluid flow cell culture system on osteoblasts seeded on 3D scaffolds………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………… BAN Yu, WU Ying-ying(14)

Inhibition of STAT5a and STAT5b effect cell poliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis on human colorectal

cancer………………………………………………………… D u Wan, Xiong Hua, Fang Jingyuan(19)

Study on Gene Expression Analysis of Osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 Cells Under Cyclic Compressive Stress

…………………………………………………… HE Yun, ZHU Zhimin, CHEN Wenchuan, et al.(25)

Experiment of CTGF-shRNA Mediated by Polyamidoamine Dendrimers on Myocardium of Spontaneously

Hypertensive Rat……………………………………… HUANG Zhijun, YI Bin, YUAN Hong, et al.(30)

The Effects of Pancreatic Stellate Cells on Islet Fibrosis in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus…………………………

…………………………………………………………… LI Fengfei, SUN Zilin, YIN Junmei, et al.(37)

Purification of the improved TAT-Apoptin fusion protein and Its Antitumor Activity………………………

……………………………………………………………… Li Jun, Zhang Zhijia, Zhan Hui, et al.(41)

Claudin-1 and Snail Expression in Retinoblastoma and Their Clinicopathological Correlations……

…………………………………………………… LI Yun, Tang Luosheng, SHENG Hongwei, et al.(44)

Overe­xpression of CCR1 predicts poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma patients after liver

transplantation……………………………………………… WANG Xiaoying, GAO Qiang, FAN Jia(48)

Successful Clearance of Subungual Warts in a Child by Local Hyperthermia…………

…………………………………………………………… ZHANG Chao, HUO Wei, MA Yan, et al.(52)

Clinical Analysis of Severe Acute Pancreatitis in 116patients………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………… LI Yin-he, YANG Guo-cheng(55)

Experimental Research on the Prevention and Treatment of Shufeng Xuanfei Prescriptions on the Rat

Chronic Serous Glomerulonephritis………………… TENG Yu, ZHANG Qiuju, JIANG Yan, et al.(62)

 重点导读

论  著

中 国四川地区宫颈癌及皮肤癌组织中HPV16

外显子变异研究*………………………郄明蓉,张健(1)

胰 岛素样生长因子结合蛋白7,皮肤纤维瘤和隆突性

皮肤纤维肉瘤的新鉴别诊断指标*

……………………………… 俞莺,严小枫,李娟,等(9)

流 体细胞培养系统对三维培养的成骨细胞的影响*………

………………………………………… 班宇,伍颖颖(14)

抑 制STAT5a、STAT5b 对大肠癌细胞增殖、周期

和凋亡的影响*……………… 杜婉,熊华,房静远(19)

周 期性压应力作用下MLO-Y4 细胞基因差

异表达的初步研究*…… 何陨,朱智敏,陈文川,等(25)

聚 酰胺- 胺型树状高聚物介导CTGF-shRNA 转染

自发性高血压大鼠心肌组织的实验研究*

……………………………… 黄志军,易斌,袁洪,等(30)

胰 腺星状细胞在2 型糖尿病胰岛纤维化

进程中的影响*……… 李凤飞,孙子林,殷俊梅,等(37)

改 良型TAT- 凋亡素融合蛋白的制备及活性检测*………

……………………………… 李俊,张之甲,詹辉,等(41)

视 网膜母细胞瘤组织中claudin-1 和snail

的表达及意义*………… 李芸,唐罗生,沈宏伟,等(44)

CC R1 趋化因子受体是肝癌肝移植患者预后

判断指标*…………………… 王晓颖,高强,樊嘉(48)

温 热疗法治愈儿童甲下疣一例*……………………………

………………………………… 张超,霍玮,马艳,等(52)


临床医学


重症急性胰腺炎116 例临床分析……李银和,杨国成(55)

对 30 例青年人肺癌的临床分析和思考……………………

……………………………………… 马丽亚,黄玉涛(58)

侧脑室引流术治疗脑室出血56 例疗效观察………………

……………………………………… 周刚鑫,沈艳娜(60)


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